Dandruff - Symptoms, Risk factors and Treatment

Dandruff causes flaking of the skin that mostly appears on the scalp causing low self-esteem. It does not occur due to poor hygiene. But it may become prominent if you do not wash your hair. Dandruff is more common in people who have dry skin. It is a mild form of a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, also known as seborrheic eczema, or crib cab when it occurs in infants. It does not cause bothersome symptoms. But itching and low self-esteem because of it can hinder your life. Oiling your hair can help in getting rid of it. The various reasons for it include seborrheic dermatitis and other conditions too like eczema, psoriasis, and allergy.  According to experts, the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. But they believe the two main causative agents are oil and fungus. Therefore reduction of oil on the skin can help get rid of it. If you have this condition cleanse with gentle soap and anti dandruff shampoo. 


It is not contagious, which means it does not spread through touch. Using medicated shampoos, especially one that has selenium sulfide in it can help get rid of it. However, symptoms may appear back.


Symptoms


The signs and symptoms of dandruff are;


  • Skin flakes on your scalp

  • Skin flakes on hair

  • Skin flakes on eyebrow

  • Skin flakes on beard or mustache

  • Skin flakes on shoulders

  • Itchy scalp

  • Scaly, crusty scalp in infants with cradle cap


The symptoms may exacerbate if you are stressed, or in cold dry weather.


Causes


The exact cause of dandruff is unknown. But it can occur due to seborrheic dermatitis. Seborrheic eczema, also known as seborrheic dermatitis, is a condition in which red scaly patches with dandruff arise on your body. Mostly it occurs on the scalp, but it can also affect other oily areas like the chest, back, and face. When it occurs in infants, it is termed a crib cap. Sometimes, it goes away on its own, while sometimes it may need repeated treatment. According to experts, the exact cause of it is unknown. But they believe the two main causative agents are oil and fungus. Therefore reduction of oil on the skin can help get rid of it. If you have this condition cleanse with gentle soap and anti dandruff shampoo. 


Risk Factors


The risk factors of seborrheic dermatitis are; 


  • Obesity 

  • Fatigue 

  • Cold and dry weather

  • Poor skincare

  • Stress 

  • Exposure to environmental pollution like dust, smoke, and dirt

  • Coexistence of other skin condition like acne, psoriasis, and rosacea

  • Using certain skincare products, particularly those containing high content of alcohol

  • Certain neurological conditions, such as a stroke, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease


Conditions that lower immunity like;


  • Malignancies and chemotherapy for their treatment

  • Having a disease that lowers immunity like AIDS

  • Children because their immune system is not well developed as compared to adults

  • Having a recent organ transplant

  • Taking immunosuppressants for a long time like prednisolone or azathioprine. 


Some other risk factors for seborrheic dermatitis are;


  • Eating disorders

  • Alcoholism

  • Depression

  • Heart attack or stroke recovery



Things to looks for


To get rid of dandruff you can use the following hair products that have anti dandruff properties. They can be enlisted as;


  • Ketoconazole 

  • Selenium sulfide

  • Zinc pyrithione

  • Coal tar

  • Salicylic acid 

  • Tea-tree oil


Conclusion 


Dandruff causes flaking of the skin, it mostly appears on the scalp causing low self-esteem. It does not occur due to poor hygiene. But it may become prominent if you do not wash your hair. Dandruff is more common in people who have dry skin. It is a mild form of a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, also known as seborrheic eczema, or crib cab when it occurs in infants. It does not cause bothersome symptoms. But itching and low self-esteem because of it can hinder your life. Oiling your hair can help in getting rid of it.


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